Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a potentially serious obstetric complication wherein the patient bleeds excessively after giving birth (RANZCOG 2017).
About 5 to 15% of births in Australia and New Zealand result in PPH. While most of these cases are minor, PPH is associated with almost one-quarter of maternal deaths globally and is a leading cause of maternal mortality in Australia and New Zealand (RANZCOG 2017; WHO 2017).
In some situations, fundal massage may assist in the prevention of PPH (WHO 2018).
What is Postpartum Haemorrhage?
Some level of postpartum bleeding is normal. However, heavy bleeding is a potentially life-threatening event and requires immediate intervention (Pregnancy, Birth and Baby 2019).
Primary PPH is excessive bleeding within the first 24 hours of birth. It is defined as either:
The loss of more than 500 mL of blood following vaginal birth;
Minor: 500 mL to 1 litre
Major: More than 1 litre
The loss of more than 1 litre of blood following a caesarean section; or
Enough blood loss to cause the mother’s condition to deteriorate.
(QAS 2020; RANZCOG 2017)
Note: The definition of PPH may vary. Always refer to your organisation's policy.
Secondary PPH is defined as a loss of more than 500 mL of blood between 24 hours postpartum and 12 weeks postpartum (RWH 2019).
PPH is common and difficult to predict, so all women giving birth should be considered at risk (RANZCOG 2017). While two-thirds of PPH incidents have no identifiable risk factors (SA DoH 2013), the following factors may play a role in PPH:
Weakened uterine muscles (e.g. due to previous births);
Having a long labour;
Fever during labour;
Having an operative delivery;
Having an episiotomy;
The use of oxytocics during labour;
Giving birth to a large baby;
A stretched uterus (e.g. due to a multiple pregnancy);
Having a bleeding disorder;
Previous history of PPH;
Having a caesarean section;
Having a coagulopathy disorder;
(Pregnancy, Birth and Baby 2019; SA DoH 2013)
Causes of Postpartum Haemorrhage
The most common cause of PPH is uterine atony (SCV 2019), wherein the uterine muscles do not contract properly post-birth. Usually, the uterus will contract to deliver the placenta and then compress the blood vessels that were attached to it. However, if these contractions are too weak, the blood vessels are able to bleed freely, potentially leading to haemorrhage (Cafasso 2016; Stanford Children’s Health 2016).
The use of inhaled anaesthetics can also promote uterine atony (Cafasso 2016).
Uterine atony is associated with about 70% of PPH incidences. Referred to as ‘tone’, it comprises one of the ‘Four T’s’, which are the most common causes of PPH (QLD DoH 2020).
As well as ‘tone’, the Four T’s also include:
Trauma (20% of PPH incidents), which includes:
Lacerations of the cervix, vagina or perineum;
Extension lacerations during caesarean section;
Uterine rupture or inversion; or
Non-genital tract trauma.
Tissue (10% of PPH incidents), which includes:
Retained products, placenta, membranes or clots; or
An abnormal placenta
Thrombin (less than 1% of PPH incidents), which is caused by issues with coagulation.
(QLD DoH 2020)
What is Fundal Massage?
Fundal massage, also known as uterine massage, is a technique used to encourage the uterus to contract properly after delivery of the placenta. It involves applying repetitive massaging or squeezing motions to the woman’s abdomen in order to stimulate the uterus (Hofmeyr, Abdel-Aleem & Abdel-Aleem 2013).
Australian clinical guidelines indicate the conditional use of fundal massage if the PPH is caused by uterine atony or a tissue problem (retained products or abnormal placenta) (QAS 2020; RANZCOG 2017; RWH 2019).
Treating a Patient Experiencing Postpartum Haemorrhage
It is important to note that a patient may not display symptoms of PPH until the blood loss has exceeded 1 litre, as the physiological changes of pregnancy may obscure the signs of haemodynamic instability (QAS 2020).
Furthermore, it has been found that a visual assessment may underestimate blood loss by over 50% (QAS 2020).
Symptoms to look out for include:
Vaginal bleeding, possibly torrential and uncontrolled;
When treating a patient with PPH, a fundal massage should only be performed if the uterus is soft. A uterus that is firm, central and contracting properly does not require massaging; this may worsen bleeding or disrupt the normal placental separation post-birth (QAS 2020).
Management of Postpartum Haemorrhage in a Prehospital Setting
When a patient is experiencing a PPH in a prehospital environment, you should first assess whether there is an obvious external tear. If this is the case, apply a direct pressure dressing, administer pain relief and transport the patient to hospital (QAS 2020).
If there is no obvious external tear, check whether the placenta has been delivered (QAS 2020).
If the placenta has been delivered, go to step 5.
If the placenta has NOT been delivered:
Initiate Active Management of the third stage of labour (to birth the placenta).
Reassure and calm mother.
Guard uterus and apply gentle controlled and steady cord traction
If the placenta has been successfully delivered, go to step 5.
If the placenta has NOT yet been successfully delivered, go to step 9.
Massage fundus until firm and central.
Encourage mother to empty bladder.
If the haemorrhage has been controlled, monitor Per Vaginal loss and fundus for firmness every 5 minutes.
If the haemorrhage is not controlled, consider:
Breastfeeding (in order to promote the release of oxytocin).
Emptying bladder (as the pressure of the bladder on the uterus can case additional atony);