What is this article about?
When an infant has an estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference that is below the 10th centile, they are referred to as being small for gestational age (SGA). For those infants who are healthy and constitutionally normal, their low birth weight may simply be the result of factors such as maternal height, weight, ethnicity and parity. In these cases, there is no increased risk of perinatal mortality or morbidity. However, the outlook is more concerning for babies whose reduced birth weight is caused by fetal growth restriction (FGR). With an overall incidence of about 11% in Australia, the causes of FGR are diverse and may include both fetal and maternal factors, or be linked to demographic influences.