This comprehensive eChapter provides an in-depth and wide ranging explication of the viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites that can cause infections of the vulva and vagina. Illustrated with copious ...high quality photographs, both rare and common infections are described, as well as tips for diagnosis and contemporary treatment pathways. This resource is suitable for any health professional providing clinical services in the areas of women’s health and paediatrics.
Non-neoplastic Cysts and Swellings
The differential diagnosis of relatively benign cysts and swellings from neoplasms is critical for determining the appropriate treatment pathway. However, the variety of non-neoplastic cysts and swell...ings of the vulva and vagina is extensive, and it is essential that health professionals understand their clinical and pathological attributes in order to facilitate correct diagnosis. This eChapter is from the Ausmed publication The Vulva and Vaginal Manual and provides a comprehensive review of the topic.
Functional disorders of the vulva and vagina represent one of the more challenging aspects of women’s health, largely because specific disorders are often a mix of organic, mechanical and psychologi...cal elements. There are a range of functional disorders that are common, and it is essential that any health care practitioner be able to identify them if appropriate management options are to be instituted. This eChapter is from the Ausmed publication The Vulva and Vaginal Manual and provides a comprehensive overview of the topic
This chapter includes the preliminary information found in, and relating to, the second edition of Palliative Care Nursing: A Guide to Practice. It offers nurses and healthcare professionals an eviden...ce-based approach to providing better care for people in palliative care and for those who love and support them.
Geriatric Medicine: A Pocket Book for Do...ctors, Nurses, Other Health Professionals and Students
Geriatric Medicine is a pocket guide for doctors, nurses, and other health professionals and students in response to our ageing community and the implications they have for the health professionals. T...he second edition contains new, up-to-date material on models of service delivery, cancer and palliative care, and residential care.
Draining Wounds, Fistulae, and Peristoma...l Wounds
Draining wounds, fistulae, and peristomal wounds present challenges to nurses and can cause significant concern to patients and their carers. The management of these wounds can be complicated—depend...ing on the individual patient, the wound, the resources available, and the skill of the nurse. This chapter discusses draining wounds, fistulae, and peristomal wounds.
The application of evidence-based practice to health-care management is relevant to people at all levels of health care—and this includes the nurse manager, who is responsible for the overall coordi...nation of nursing team resources.
Managing Relatives’ Concerns
As consumers of health services have become more knowledgeable about their care and treatment, their expectations have risen. There has been a similar growth in the knowledge and expectations of the r...elatives of those receiving care—relatives want and expect high standards of care and treatment. This chapter explores some of the background to relatives’ concerns and suggest strategies that can be used by nurse managers when dealing with a concerned relative.
The Nurse Manager as Educator
Nurses as ‘knowledge workers’ will stay committed to their employers if they are provided with the resources for interesting work, and if they are able to learn, grow and use all of their skills. ...If such an environment is not forthcoming, nurses, like other knowledge workers, will move on. This presents nurse managers with challenges in creating an environment in which nurse practitioners can flourish and perform effectively.
Coping with Hostility
Hostility and overt aggression have been identified as factors that have a significant influence on the delivery of clinical care (Gournay 2001) and on the recruitment and retention of staff (Jackson,... Clare & Mannix 2002). Such hostility is not restricted to interactions with patients and their families; it also occurs in interactions between staff members.
All managers rely on information to make decisions. It is therefore essential that nurse managers understand how to use information effectively. In the past, nurses have tended to see technology as de...humanising and counterproductive to the art and science of nursing (Ammenwerth et al. 2003).However, those now entering the nursing profession have been educated with computers and are aware of the possibilities that the Internet and other computer information systems can provide. Attitudes have shifted within the modern nursing workforce (Richards 2001). There is now a move to a requirement of having computers at the place care is provided through hand-held devices (Erdley 2006). Not only is this point-of-care technology seen as providing safer care but also saves time, allowing nurses to spend more time providing nursing care (Smith et al. 2005).
A budget is a formalised planning tool used by management to compare expected revenues with expected expenses for the year (Finkler & Kovner2000). The objective of budgeting is to maximise organisatio...nal resources to meet short-term and long-term goals (Marquis & Huston 2003). A budget is therefore a written financial plan that aims to control resources (Huber 2000).
This chapter outlines how changing health-care environments impact on roster design, defines rostering objectives and outlines the key elements required to achieve these objectives. It also introduces... a range of methodologies and outlines their relative advantagesand disadvantages gives a practical example of how to measure the number of labour hoursper patient day a roster pattern will absorbs, estimates associated costs and describes the purpose and process of roster re-engineering.
Recruiting and Retaining Staff
The current global shortage of nurses has created a highly competitive market in the recruitment of nurses. Health services are competing with each other to recruit suitably qualified nurses and the h...ealth industry as a whole is trying to attract school and university students to undertake nursing studies. This competitive environment has ensured that a critical component of the work of nurse managers is the recruitment and retention of nursing staff.
Working With Job Descriptions
Job descriptions play a vital role in the success of organisational performance. The term job description has been largely replaced by position description (Dessler et al. 2004). Both provide a clear ...written template of roles and expected performance for both an organisation and for individual employees. At the recruitment phase, a job or position description gives the prospective employee an opportunity for self-assessment suitability. In a sense this represents the commencement of the culling phase of selection. Throughout the period of employment the job description serves as an ongoing framework for performance evaluation, as well as for position review and for position redesign. When an employee leaves the organisation, the job description can be further reviewed and refined to assist the organisation in achieving its goals.
Writing Policies and Procedures
In coming to grips with any topic, the first task is to define the key terms—in this case policy. Within this context, there are two sorts of policy: public policy and organisational policy. The act...ivities listed below clearly refer to government functions, hence the term ‘public’; indeed, public policy is allabout how public resources are used and the expected outcomes from theallocation of resources. However, the principles behind each of these points can be adapted to policy areas of health services; that is, ‘organisational’ policy. The umbrella term of policy describes a number of organisational activities(Hogwood & Gunn 1984), including: a label for field of activity; an expression of general purpose or desired state of affairs; specific proposals; decisions of government; formal authorisation; programs; output; outcome; theory or model; and process.
Maximising the Quality Factor
Quality in health care has been defined as ‘doing the right thing, the first time, in the right way, and at the right time’ (NSW Health 2002). Consumers of health care expect that the services pro...vided will be safe, effective, appropriate, consumer-focused, accessible and efficient. The challenge for providers of health care is to monitor and improve systems continuously to satisfy these expectations.
Occupational Health and Safety
The nature of nursing means that every day many nurses are injured or become ill as a result of work. Causes include physical violence, ergonomic hazards (such as manual handling), exposure to infecti...ous diseases (airborne, blood borne and direct contact), fatigue (due to physically and mentally demanding work), work organisation and shift work, radiation (ionising and non-ionising), handling toxic drugs and exposure to chemicals.
Managing risk is an overarching aspect of the nurse manager’s role. In providing clinical services, the nurse manager’s paramount concern must be to ensure the health and safety of patients and st...aff. This chapter teaches nurse managers about how to manage risks proactively by assessing what can possibly go wrong, developing a plan to manage these risks, act on this plan, harness the efforts of the team and then recognise the improvements.
Managing performance is a vital management tool if nurse managers are to inspire, motivate and lead their teams to clinical excellence. Performance management includes the evaluation of an individual'...s work practice, the review of goals, the setting of new objectives and career planning.