All Resources (eChapter)
Managing risk is an overarching aspect of the nurse manager’s role. In providing clinical services, the nurse manager’s paramount concern must be to ensure the health and safety of patients and st...aff. This chapter teaches nurse managers about how to manage risks proactively by assessing what can possibly go wrong, developing a plan to manage these risks, act on this plan, harness the efforts of the team and then recognise the improvements.
Occupational Health and Safety
The nature of nursing means that every day many nurses are injured or become ill as a result of work. Causes include physical violence, ergonomic hazards (such as manual handling), exposure to infecti...ous diseases (airborne, blood borne and direct contact), fatigue (due to physically and mentally demanding work), work organisation and shift work, radiation (ionising and non-ionising), handling toxic drugs and exposure to chemicals.
Maximising the Quality Factor
Quality in health care has been defined as ‘doing the right thing, the first time, in the right way, and at the right time’ (NSW Health 2002). Consumers of health care expect that the services pro...vided will be safe, effective, appropriate, consumer-focused, accessible and efficient. The challenge for providers of health care is to monitor and improve systems continuously to satisfy these expectations.
Writing Policies and Procedures
In coming to grips with any topic, the first task is to define the key terms—in this case policy. Within this context, there are two sorts of policy: public policy and organisational policy. The act...ivities listed below clearly refer to government functions, hence the term ‘public’; indeed, public policy is allabout how public resources are used and the expected outcomes from theallocation of resources. However, the principles behind each of these points can be adapted to policy areas of health services; that is, ‘organisational’ policy. The umbrella term of policy describes a number of organisational activities(Hogwood & Gunn 1984), including: a label for field of activity; an expression of general purpose or desired state of affairs; specific proposals; decisions of government; formal authorisation; programs; output; outcome; theory or model; and process.
Working With Job Descriptions
Job descriptions play a vital role in the success of organisational performance. The term job description has been largely replaced by position description (Dessler et al. 2004). Both provide a clear ...written template of roles and expected performance for both an organisation and for individual employees. At the recruitment phase, a job or position description gives the prospective employee an opportunity for self-assessment suitability. In a sense this represents the commencement of the culling phase of selection. Throughout the period of employment the job description serves as an ongoing framework for performance evaluation, as well as for position review and for position redesign. When an employee leaves the organisation, the job description can be further reviewed and refined to assist the organisation in achieving its goals.
Recruiting and Retaining Staff
The current global shortage of nurses has created a highly competitive market in the recruitment of nurses. Health services are competing with each other to recruit suitably qualified nurses and the h...ealth industry as a whole is trying to attract school and university students to undertake nursing studies. This competitive environment has ensured that a critical component of the work of nurse managers is the recruitment and retention of nursing staff.
This chapter outlines how changing health-care environments impact on roster design, defines rostering objectives and outlines the key elements required to achieve these objectives. It also introduces... a range of methodologies and outlines their relative advantagesand disadvantages gives a practical example of how to measure the number of labour hoursper patient day a roster pattern will absorbs, estimates associated costs and describes the purpose and process of roster re-engineering.
A budget is a formalised planning tool used by management to compare expected revenues with expected expenses for the year (Finkler & Kovner2000). The objective of budgeting is to maximise organisatio...nal resources to meet short-term and long-term goals (Marquis & Huston 2003). A budget is therefore a written financial plan that aims to control resources (Huber 2000).
All managers rely on information to make decisions. It is therefore essential that nurse managers understand how to use information effectively. In the past, nurses have tended to see technology as de...humanising and counterproductive to the art and science of nursing (Ammenwerth et al. 2003).However, those now entering the nursing profession have been educated with computers and are aware of the possibilities that the Internet and other computer information systems can provide. Attitudes have shifted within the modern nursing workforce (Richards 2001). There is now a move to a requirement of having computers at the place care is provided through hand-held devices (Erdley 2006). Not only is this point-of-care technology seen as providing safer care but also saves time, allowing nurses to spend more time providing nursing care (Smith et al. 2005).
The Nurse Manager as Educator
Nurses as ‘knowledge workers’ will stay committed to their employers if they are provided with the resources for interesting work, and if they are able to learn, grow and use all of their skills. ...If such an environment is not forthcoming, nurses, like other knowledge workers, will move on. This presents nurse managers with challenges in creating an environment in which nurse practitioners can flourish and perform effectively.
Coping with Hostility
Hostility and overt aggression have been identified as factors that have a significant influence on the delivery of clinical care (Gournay 2001) and on the recruitment and retention of staff (Jackson,... Clare & Mannix 2002). Such hostility is not restricted to interactions with patients and their families; it also occurs in interactions between staff members.
Managing Relatives’ Concerns
As consumers of health services have become more knowledgeable about their care and treatment, their expectations have risen. There has been a similar growth in the knowledge and expectations of the r...elatives of those receiving care—relatives want and expect high standards of care and treatment. This chapter explores some of the background to relatives’ concerns and suggest strategies that can be used by nurse managers when dealing with a concerned relative.
The application of evidence-based practice to health-care management is relevant to people at all levels of health care—and this includes the nurse manager, who is responsible for the overall coordi...nation of nursing team resources.
eChapter End Matter
This chapter contains the index to the Ausmed chapter series Nurse Managers: A Guide to Practice - 2nd Edition. In addition to this useful reference, a glossary of key terms included in the series is ...included and a post-series test that readers may find useful to check their knowledge.
The Seed of an Idea: Closing the Gap (Al...an Pearson)
This Chapter follows Alan Pearson as he came to Adelaide and founded the Joanna Briggs Institute......
The Joanna Briggs Collaboration
This chapter discusses how the Joanna Briggs Institute in Adelaide, South Australia, collaborated with not only other Australian states, but also with cities and countries around the world......
Emerging Methodologies: an Evolution of ...Idea (Joanna Briggs)
This Chapter discusses how continued methodological innovation will continue to play a significant role in the future of the Institute......
Innovation for Improved Practice (eviden...ce-based health care)
This chapter discusses how by 2002 the Institute recognised that it was not enough to provide resources and technology for researchers; clinicians and students also needed these facilities......
Making Evidence Meaningful; Back to the ...Future
This Chapter discusses how the Institute developed a distinctive approach to the translation (systematic review), transfer (guideline production) and utilisation (development of systems for implementa...tion) of the best available evidence...
eChapter End Matter
This chapter contains the index to the Ausmed chapter series A Short History of a Big Idea: The Joanna Briggs Institute 1996-2006. In addition to this useful reference, a glossary of key terms include...d in the series is included and a post-series test that readers may find useful to check their knowledge.