Australians are growing older but there is no need for despair because most ageing people live independent and satisfying lives. Generally, the message is — use it or lose it! People who stay active... outside the home, and maintain their interests, remain well to an advanced age. However, it would be a mistake to believe that health problems do not increase with age. Despite improvements in nutrition and health care, and regardless of better living conditions, the fact is that most people who are ill are elderly. There are also psychiatric conditions that affect people as they grow older. Therefore, it is useful to consider the mental health problems that can occur in old age and the care required in the community. This chapter explores these issues from the unique perspective of citizenship.