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Inherited Cancers and Genetic Counselling
Inherited Cancers and Genetic Counsellin...g
Nursing Lecture
Added: 11/05/2016
The current practice of genetic counselling is based on helping people to understand and adapt to medical, psychological and genetic contributions to disease....
Cancer as a Chronic Disease
Cancer as a Chronic Disease
Nursing Lecture
Added: 07/12/2015
The concept of cancer as a chronic illness has become more of a reality with the long trajectory of treatment especially when it is not a one-time event. In addition more people are surviving a cancer... diagnosis as early detection, investigations and treatments continue to develop.
Normal Variations
eChapter
Added: 28/02/2013
When performing an assessment of the female genital tract, it is essential not just to understand the appearance of the normal anatomy, but also the normal variations of this anatomy that may occur. W...hen these normal variations are identified, they may sometimes require treatment to improve quality of life, and this eChapter identifies and describes the most common normal variations of the female genital tract, provides criteria for diagnosis and outlines the preferred treatment of these variations. In the first section of the eChapter, the author describes four normal variations of the vulva. The first, Fordyce spots require no treatment but may generate confusion during the diagnostic phase for the inexperienced clinician. The second, the large labia majora rarely requires treatment, but women in which it is manifest may request surgical reduction for cosmetic reasons, or because the anatomy causes discomfort whilst walking. Vestibular papillomas once again are a normal variation to the anatomy, but the ability to distinguish them is crucial as they can be mistaken for genital warts and treated inappropriately. Finally, labial adhesions in infancy are discussed. The next section focuses on normal variations of the vagina and describes two common findings. The first is normal physiological discharge, and although treatment is not normally required, the importance of excluding more sinister causes is emphasised by the author. The second is a comprehensive examination of estrogen deficiency, and photographs are used to show it’s atrophic effects on the vagina. Management options such as estogen replacement are discussed, and the author emphasises the importance of considering the inclusion of psychosexual counselling as an important contribution to the treatment program. This eChapter forms part of the Ausmed publication The Vulva and Vaginal Manual, edited by Graeme Dennerstein, James Scurry, John Brenan, David Allen and Maria-Grazia Marin. A richly illustrated and comprehensive guide to the identification and treatment of over 275 vulvovaginal diseases The Vulva and Vaginal Manual is an invaluable resource especially suitable for: Gynecologists Dermatologists General Practitioners Obstetricians Midwives General nurses Practice nurses Nurse Practitioners There are also 14 additional eChapters from The Vulva and Vaginal Manual available for members to download from the Ausmed website. Subscription also entitles members to access the full range of resources that compliment and build upon the material described within The Vulva and Vaginal Manual, including a richly populated catalogue of Audio Lectures, Fast Facts and Video Learning Activities on the topics of gynecology, obstetrics, oncology, women’s health and a wide range of other healthcare topics. Both members and non-subscribers alike may also purchase a hard copy of this book of from the Ausmed Education Online Bookstore, along with hard copies of the complimentary publication Gynecological Cancer Care: A Guide to Practice.
The Dermatologist's Perspective
eChapter
Added: 28/02/2013
It is increasingly common for gynaecologists and dermatologists to work in partnership in the diagnosis and management of diseases of the vulva and vagina. This is because understanding the funda...mentals of dermatology applicable to the vulva and vagina has repeatedly been shown to be a valuable adjunct to the rationalisation of diagnosis, classification, investigation and management of disease. This eChapter describes these fundamentals in detail, describes the common dermatological conditions of the vulva, and provides guidance regarding contemporary treatment options. The eChapter begins by describing the scope of concern for dermatologists, and breaks the skin down into three distinct components: the epidermis, comprised of keratinocytes, melanocytes and Langerhans’ cells; the Dermis, comprised of the upper papillary dermis and the reticular dermis and the Basement Membrane Zone. The importance of obtaining a correct dermatological history is emphasised, and the author then progresses to discuss the interpretation of the macroscopic pathology of the skin of the vulva. How disease affects the functions of the various components of the vulval skin is then reviewed, with specific emphasis placed upon alterations in keratinocyte function, oedema of the dermis and coagulation of tissue fluid, and how these may be manifest in clinical signs such as surface scale, blisters, ulcers, scaly skin and crust. This discussion is then extended to include an overview of the processes that lay behind such diseases as erythema, wheals, lichenification, erythemato-squamous lesions, hypo-pigmentation, atrophy blisters, and ulcers. The chapter concludes by providing guidelines for treatment options, including non-pharmacological approaches such as saline soaks and lubricant creams, and pharmacological options such as corticosteroids in their various forms. This eChapter forms part of the Ausmed publication The Vulva and Vaginal Manual, edited by Graeme Dennerstein, James Scurry, John Brenan, David Allen and Maria-Grazia Marin. A richly illustrated and comprehensive guide to the identification and treatment of over 275 vulvovaginal diseases The Vulva and Vagina Manual is an invaluable resource especially suitable for: Gynecologists Dermatologists General Practitioners Obstetricians Midwives General nurses Practice nurses Nurse Practitioners There are also 14 additional eChapters from The Vulva and Vaginal Manual available for members to download from the Ausmed website. Subscription also entitles members to access the full range of resources that compliment and build upon the material described within The Vulva and Vaginal Manual, including a richly populated catalogue of Audio Lectures, Fast Facts and Video Learning Activities on the topics of gynecology, obstetrics, oncology, women’s health and a wide range of other healthcare topics. Both members and non-subscribers alike may also purchase a hard copy of this book of from the Ausmed Education Online Bookstore, along with hard copies of the complimentary publication Gynecological Cancer Care: A Guide to Practice.
Neoplasms
eChapter
Added: 28/02/2013
Some of the most complex disorders of the vulva and vagina are the neoplasms, and this is because of the variety of cells native to the anatomy gives rise to a wide range of possibilities in terms of ...potential cancer types. This comprehensive eChapter has been written by a distinguished gynaecological oncologist and provides descriptions, clinical features, diagnostic and treatment guidelines for over 240 different neoplasms of the vulva and vagina, and is an excellent resource for any health professional. This eChapter is divided into two sections, the first being concerned with neoplasms of the vulva. The author progresses through the descriptions of the various cancers in numerical order, and begins the section on cancers of the vulva with a general description of seborrheic keratosis, it’s clinical features, pathology and treatment, and follows this pattern for the remainder of the eChapter. The first section describes 195 unique neoplasms and their sub-types, including a comprehensive review of common cancers such as vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and it’s variants) , intraepithelial carcinoma (CIN and it’s stages), squamous cell carcinoma, and rarer neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma, or the ‘self-healing SCC’, and Karposi’s sarcoma. The second section describes 51 neoplasms of the vagina, and includes classificatory and staging tables, as well as illustrative photographs and histological slides. The section describes the more common cancers, such as vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN and it’s various stages), squamous cell carcinomas, and rarer examples such as Mullerian papilloma and benign mixed tumors. This eChapter forms part of the Ausmed publication The Vulva and Vaginal Manual, edited by Graeme Dennerstein, James Scurry, John Brenan, David Allen and Maria-Grazia Marin. A richly illustrated and comprehensive guide to the identification and treatment of over 275 vulvovaginal diseases The Vulva and Vaginal Manual is an invaluable resource especially suitable for: Gynecologists Dermatologists General Practitioners Obstetricians Midwives General nurses Practice nurses Nurse Practitioners There are also 14 additional eChapters from The Vulva and Vaginal Manual available for members to download from the Ausmed website. Subscription also entitles members to access the full range of resources that compliment and build upon the material described within The Vulva and Vaginal Manual, including a richly populated catalogue of Audio Lectures, Fast Facts and Video Learning Activities on the topics of gynecology, obstetrics, oncology, women’s health and a wide range of other healthcare topics. Both members and non-subscribers alike may also purchase a hard copy of this book from the Ausmed Education Online Bookstore, along with hard copies of the complimentary publication Gynecological Cancer Care: A Guide to Practice.
Developmental Abnormalities
eChapter
Added: 28/02/2013
Developmental abnormalities of the vulva and vagina are commonly manifest at birth but may also present during delayed puberty, sexual intercourse or during an obstructed labour. Divided into conditio...ns where the gender of the genitalia is not in question, and those where there are various degrees of clitoral enlargement, labial fusion and where gonadal abnormalities show one or more facets of male genitalia, this chapter describes the conditions associated with each of these conditions in turn, and describes contemporary management options. The first section- malformations that do not lead to sexual ambiguity- begins by describing the very rare phenomena of the double vulva and the more common condition of cysts of the canal of Nuck. Dermoid cysts are then discussed, followed by vascular malformations, dilatations and their treatment. The author then moves on to the topics of congenital lymphedema and the imperforate hymen, cautioning that complications of an imperforate hymen may become especially worrying with the onset of menstruation. Transverse, longitudinal and non-midline longitudinal and oblique vaginal septa are the next topic for consideration, and the author makes good use of medical imagery to illustrate his discussion. Double vaginas, vaginal hypoplasia, atresia and agenesis are then briefly outlined and the section concludes with the topics of DES associated abnormalities, Gartner’s duct cysts, epispadias, hypospadias and vaginal fistulas. The second sectioned is concerned with malformations that are associated with ambiguous external sexual organs, where gender cannot be easily assigned by visual inspection. Topics covered include gonadal dysgenesis, ovarian dysgenesis, testicular dysgenesis and true hermaphroditism. The eChapter concludes with a brief discussion on the investigation and treatment of intersex. This eChapter forms part of the Ausmed publication The Vulva and Vaginal Manual, edited by Graeme Dennerstein, James Scurry, John Brenan, David Allen and Maria-Grazia Marin. A richly illustrated and comprehensive guide to the identification and treatment of over 275 vulvovaginal diseases The Vulva and Vagina Manual is an invaluable resource especially suitable for: Gynecologists Dermatologists General Practitioners Obstetricians Midwives General nurses Practice nurses Nurse Practitioners There are also 14 additional eChapters from The Vulva and Vaginal Manual available for members to download from the Ausmed website. Subscription also entitles members to access the full range of resources that compliment and build upon the material described within The Vulva and Vaginal Manual, including a richly populated catalogue of Audio Lectures, Fast Facts and Video Learning Activities on the topics of gynecology, obstetrics, oncology, women’s health and a wide range of other healthcare topics. Both members and non-subscribers alike may also purchase a hard copy of this book of the from the Ausmed Education Online Bookstore, along with hard copies of the complimentary publication Gynecological Cancer Care: A Guide to Practice.
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