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Urinary Difficulties




  • Chapter focuses on urinary incontinence including its types, causes, assessment and treatment
  • Includes a discussion on retention of urine including its types, signs and symptoms, causes and more
  • Explains cystitis, ureteric obstruction and urinary fistulae
  • Provides suggestions for living with urinary difficulties

A healthy adult is normally continent of urine, can hold between 300 and 600 ml of urine in the bladder, and passes urine approximately 6-8 times in 24 hours. Urinary difficulties associated with gynaecological cancer include urinary incontinence, retention of urine, cystitis, ureteric obstruction, and urinary fistula. A loss of bladder function and control increases the difficulty of dealing with cancer and its treatment. This chapter looks at these urinary problems and the methods used in their treatment.


Contents include

  • Urinary incontinence
    • Definition and incidence
    • Types of incontinence
    • Assessment and treatment of incontinence
  • Retention of urine
    • Types of retention
    • Signs and symptoms
    • Causes
    • Catheterisation
  • Cystitis
    • Definition and presentation
    • Radiation cystitis
    • Chemotherapy cystitis
    • Treatment
  • Ureteric obstruction
    • Incidence and causes
    • Signs and symptoms
    • Diagnosis
    • Management
  • Urinary fistulae
    • Causes and types
    • Signs and symptoms
    • Diagnosis
    • Management
  • Living with urinary difficulties
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Author / Editor Biographies

Anne Sargent is a registered nurse who holds a certificate in advanced nursing practice in continence management from Flinders University (South Australia). She is president of the Continence Foundation of Australia in New South Wales (NSW) and a member of the Australian Nurses for Continence, the Association of Nurse Continence Advisers (NSW) and the Australasian Urological Nurses Society. Anne has had more than 30 years of nursing experience in Australia, Scotland, America, and Canada. She has worked in her current position as a Clinical Nurse Consultant for continence care in the Penrith, B...

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