Fibromyalgia and Pain Management Explained

CPD
3m

Published: 04 June 2020

'I feel so tired, all the time. And the pain… sometimes I have pain in my leg that is so bad I can’t walk and just to touch it… it feels like someone has slammed into it with a hammer. I have trouble sleeping, I have trouble concentrating… and did I mention the tiredness? When I’m stressed the pain becomes worse, and it’s not only in my leg, sometimes it feels like I have it everywhere, but the leg is always the worst.'

– Quoted from Ms X

You are probably wondering what has happened to Ms X. What is the cause of this pain?

Is the pain causing the fatigue and difficulty concentrating, or is the fatigue making the pain worse?

Why is the pain worse when she is stressed?

And why is it widespread and not just affecting her leg?

For people with fibromyalgia, a condition that often severely impacts quality of life, these questions can not always be answered.

What is Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is a musculoskeletal pain syndrome with no clearly identified cause. Due to this, treatment tends to be difficult. Fibromyalgia is estimated to affect 2-5% of the population and is more common in women than men (Healthdirect 2018).

The most debilitating symptom of this condition is chronic and widespread pain. Fibromyalgia may also cause a neurological symptom called allodynia, which affects the body’s perception of pain. This means the brain will interpret harmless stimuli as painful, leading to increased sensitivity that causes the slightest touch to feel extremely painful (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2015; Dellwo 2019).

Other symptoms may include:

  • Chronic fatigue;
  • Sleep disorders;
  • Concentration and memory issues;
  • Anxiety, depression or emotional distress;
  • Irritable bowel syndrome and other functional gastrointestinal tract disorders;
  • Headaches;
  • Numbness and tingling in arms and legs;
  • Endometriosis; and
  • Painful bladder syndrome.

(Healthdirect 2018; Watson & Higuera 2019)

Fibromyalgia commonly coexists with other chronic pain conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and osteoarthritis, with between 10-30% of people with rheumatic disorders also meeting the criteria for fibromyalgia (Clauw 2015).

fibromyalgia tender points
The most debilitating symptom of fibromyalgia is chronic and widespread pain.

Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia

The diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia state that symptoms must have been present for a minimum of three months and can not be attributed to any other disorder (Agency for Healthcare Research 2015).

The criteria also take into account the other range of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia including fatigue, sleep problems and cognitive disturbances. Additionally, it recognises that symptoms will fluctuate over time (Guymer & Littlejohn 2013).

Treatment of Fibromyalgia

Unfortunately, there is no specific cure for fibromyalgia. Treatment focuses on symptom control and pain management.

Treatment is based on therapies that alleviate the symptoms and improve the level of functioning of the individual. These therapies are generally focused on decreasing musculoskeletal pain, improving both physical and cognitive function, managing any co-morbidities such as depression and increasing independence (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2015).

Treatment will often take a multimodal approach and incorporate strategies such as pharmacological management, exercise programs, patient education and cognitive behavioural therapies (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2015).

Pain Management for Fibromyalgia

fibromyalgia neck pain
Muscle relaxant medications may be used for muscle stiffness or spasms associated with fibromyalgia.

The pain experienced from fibromyalgia is often difficult to manage, partially because it is understood to originate from the brain rather than the muscles and bones (Healthdirect 2018).

One theory is that people with fibromyalgia have experienced a change in the way their central nervous system processes pain, causing increased sensitivity. Fibromyalgia may also be associated with abnormally low levels of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine in the brain (NHS 2019).

Pharmacological pain management can include centrally-acting antidepressants and anticonvulsants. However, these medicines can also cause a number of side effects for the individual. These include:

  • Nausea;
  • Dry mouth;
  • Drowsiness;
  • Agitation;
  • Anxiety;
  • Weight gain; and
  • Constipation.

(Hauser et al. 2014; NHS 2019)

Muscle relaxant medications can also be used for muscle stiffness or spasms associated with fibromyalgia. These medications can help with sleeping difficulties and further assist with other symptoms that may have been exacerbated due to fatigue (NHS 2019).

Individuals can also participate in non-pharmacological pain management techniques such as relaxation, exercise, hydrotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy (NHS 2019).

Often treatment will be holistic and involve a variety of interventions to ensure the patient is cared for in all aspects of their health, as fibromyalgia can affect all areas of an individual’s life.

Every person with fibromyalgia will have different symptoms and different treatment goals, so treatment is individualised.

As nurses, we may find our role is to provide support to the individual, as well as focus on pain management.

It is also important to remember that fibromyalgia isn’t only about pain management – there are many other symptoms the patient will be experiencing, and all of these symptoms will be impacting on their quality of life.

Additional Resources


References

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Authors

Portrait of Ausmed Editorial Team
Ausmed Editorial Team

Ausmed’s Editorial team is committed to providing high-quality and thoroughly researched content to our readers, free of any commercial bias or conflict of interest. All articles are developed in consultation with healthcare professionals and peer reviewed where necessary, undergoing a yearly review to ensure all healthcare information is kept up to date. See Educator Profile

Portrait of Sally Moyle
Sally Moyle

Sally Moyle is a rehabilitation nurse educator who has completed her masters of nursing (clinical nursing and teaching). She is passionate about education in nursing so that we can become the best nurses possible. Sally has experience in many nursing sectors including rehabilitation, medical, orthopaedic, neurosurgical, day surgery, emergency, aged care, and general surgery. See Educator Profile

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